It’s not uncommon to only bring up monitors when talking about display server outputs, but there are more subtle yet arguably important ones that doesn’t always get the attention they deserve. One such output are LEDs (and more fringe light emitters that gets bundled together with the acronym), present in both laptop backlights and keyboard latched-modifier indicators used for num-lock, scroll-lock and so on.
In the case of the display backlight, the low-level control interface may be bundled with backlight management, so there’s a natural fit. In the case of keyboard modifiers, it comes with the window management territory – someone needs privilege to change the device state, and different applications have different views on active modifiers. A lot of gaming devices, recent keyboards and mice today also come with more flexible LED interfaces that permit dozens or hundreds of different outputs.
Arcan has had support for fringe LED devices for a long time (since about ~2003-2004) in the form of the Ultimarc LED controller, used for very custom builds. Recently, this support has been refactored somewhat and extended to be usable both for internally managed LED devices that come bundled with other input and output devices – and for a custom FIFO- protocol for connecting to external tools.
As part of developing and testing this rework, the following video was recorded:
Thought it may not be easy to see (I don’t have a good rigging for filming at the moment), a few interesting things happen here. The hardware setup is comprised of a few Adafruit Neopixel sticks attached to the back sides of the monitor, along with an Arduino and a G410 RGB keyboard. The software setup is a custom LED profile for Durden (an upcoming feature for the next release). This profile samples some state of the currently selected window, like contents or level of trust (since application origin and permissions are tracked), and maps to the arduino controlled LEDs. It is updated in response to changes to the canvas contents of the window, and moves with window- selection state. There is also a ‘keymap’ profile that describes how the currently active keyboard layout translates into RGB keyboard LEDs. This allows the input-state, like the currently available keybindings, to be reflected by the lights on keyboard. When a meta-key is pressed – only the keybindings relevant to that key will be shown on the keyboard.
This can be utilised for more ambient effects, like in the following video:
Here, the prio WM is used, and it maps the contents of the video being played back in the lower right corner to both the display backlight, and to the keyboard.
This system allows for a number of window- manager states to be trivially exposed — things such as notification alerts, resource consumption issues, application crashes etc. in (to some) much less intrusive ways than something like popup windows or sound alerts.
In the following clip you can see a profile running on Durden that maps both global system state (the top bar corresponds to the current audio volume levels, and the all-white state indicate that input is locked to a specific window), while the other colors indicate valid keybindings and what they target.
Though the driver support may be sketchy (RGB Keyboards and related gaming peripherals can be absolutely terrible in this regard), the patches and tools used for the demos above can be found in this git repository.