Arcan 0.5.5, Durden 0.5

We’ve accumulated enough features and fixes that it is time for yet another release. The beefier changelogs can be found here: (Arcan) and here: (Durden). Starting with the following video which consolidates the visible changes to (indirectly) Arcan and its reference desktop environment, Durden.

Among the many release highlights is the improved OpenBSD support and that we are now packaged in void linux (wiki entry), the premier Linux distribution for those of us who would much prefer a user space free of the more incessant “” impositions. With the exception of the recently added ‘Safespaces‘ VR desktop project, and its associated hardware device driver bridges, most other key components and supplementary tools are now packaged and ready to be enjoyed inside the void. The Arcan package has been synched to match 0.5.5 and Durden 0.5 will come in a day or two.

In terms of future steps:

The Arcan 0.5 focus with its focus on graphics related subsystems will likely wind down towards the end of the year and put more attention towards advanced network support (that is, not RDP/VNC nonsense), being the key part we lack before comfortably being able to claim to be way beyond feature parity with Xorg.

Durden has about one or two big release more with a feature focus in it (particularly for touch displays, tablets and styluses), then we will switch over to improving the ones we already have and polish away the ‘developer graphics’ aesthetics and just sand down the edges in general.

After this release, the respective git repositories will be managed a bit differently from the ‘everything goes on master’ approach from before. After each ‘big’ release such as this one, a set of key features per subsystem gets picked from ‘the infinitely big pile’ and gets added as a branch with a corresponding (VERSION-SUBSYS-NOTES) file in the root covering a rough breakdown of the changes to be made before the branch is complete.

When a branch has been completed, it gets cleaned up, rebased, squashed and merged unto master – prompting a new version bump (a.b.c.d+1) until there are no more such branches, prompting a new blog post /video and a (a.b.c+1) versioned release.

Thus, if you are monitoring the git – be forewarned that activity on master will only come in bursts and that the topic branches will be the new way to go.

You can see the current ones here: ARCAN and DURDEN. Now, onto the highlighted feature walkthrough.

Browser Improvement: Video Previews

The built-in command-line interface resource browser has been extended with the option to allow known video formats to be automatically previewed when selected or when they pop into view. More detailed controls over preview triggers have also been added.

Relevant menu paths: /global/settings/browser

The next steps for this feature is to add ‘set actions’ for the filtered set, like open as playlist. We are also investigating letting external clients provide previews (based on priority and level of trust), as well as open to client, letting the browser act as a universal file picker.

New Feature: Menu system is mountable

All UI interaction and configuration can now be accessed ‘as a file’. Combined with the added ‘arcan_cfgfs’ (arcan:src/tools/acfgfs) FUSE file system tool, the entire menu system is now mountable – albeit  still a bit slow:

This opens up for a number of testing / automation features, and should also make it easier to discover all the available features when you can basically find and grep. It is implemented over the ‘control’ domain socket. Enable it with the the menu path:


and a socket with the name ‘i_am_in_control’ will be created in the durden/ipc path in the appl_temp filesystem namespace (depending on how you run it, for a local build it might be the same as /path/to/durden, $XDG_DATA_HOME/arcan/appl-out/durden/ipc or $HOME/.arcan/appl-out/durden/ipc on some distributions). You can also access the socket manually or via other/custom tools (fastest approach) than FUSE:

socat - unix-client:/path/to/i_am_in_control

Here you should be able to issue commands like:

 ls /
read /global/settings/visual/mouse_scale
exec /browse
write /global/settings/visual/mouse_scale=2

This also opens up for runtime conversion / application of configuration files from other WM systems, assisting with workflow migration.

It is also possible to monitor events from various desktop subsystems:

monitor wm notification display timers

(current groups being ‘notification’, ‘wm’, ‘display’, ‘connection’, ‘input’, ‘dispatch’, ‘wayland’, ‘ipc’, ‘timers’, ‘clipboard’, ‘clients’)

Combining the monitor feature with the ‘everything is a file’ approach should be complete enough to allow the conversion of old xdotool- like hacks, or, being brave enough, translate the relevant xlib subsets to provide support for running Xorg WMs.

New Tool: VRViewer

It is no coincidence that this tool looks eerily similar to the VR Desktop (Safespaces) – it is mostly the exact same code base, with small parts changed to integrate into the desktop.

The primary uses for this tool are both for developing and testing safespaces without having to enable/disable a HMD every so often, but also for data viewing use cases where you might have stereoscopic and/or geometry projected videos or photos that you want to look at quickly.

Relevant menu paths: /global/tools/vrviewer

The video also shows “drag-and-drop” like cursor-tagging, integrated into the tool to allow windows to migrate or clone into the VR tool.

Advanced Float improvements:

The ‘advanced float’ mode is something of a more hidden tool that slowly but surely aggregates all the features that your rodent friendly DE would provide. Two new features this time: a reveal / hide mode to the autolayouter, and a Window-to-Wallpaper feature that can forward input when no native window has input focus. Below, you can see an instance of Xarcan being used as the ‘wallpaper’. The gridfit- tool that allows compiz- like pseudo-tiling has also received a popup- mode for a pointer device friendly quickpath.

Relevant menu paths: /target/window/workspace_background

The final coming stretch for this part of Durden should be binding menu paths to background icons, and allow window minimization targets to be statusbar, tray or desktop.

New Feature: Decoration Impostors

As a follow up to the argument on client side decorations, we now allow per-client custom cropping of [t | l | d | r] pixels, and the option to define a titlebar impostor that can be toggled on and off. In the video you see gtk3-demo under wayland getting its incessant border and shadow removed, and the “fattyfingerbar” becoming a custom toggle in order to not lose access to client controls. There are still a number of edge cases to work out, but the basic concept is working.

Relevant menu paths: /target/window/crop, /target/window/titlebar/impostor

Speaking of decorations, it is now possible to bind arbitrary menu paths to titlebar buttons in UI (previous method was only by patching autostart.lua and worked globally), with unique per window overrides or mode-specific sets that follow the current workspace layout mode. Workspaces in float mode can also have a different border thickness and border area than the other modes.

The next steps for this feature is automatic detection, integration with the ‘viewport’ protocol, to allow the selected window titlebar to ‘merge’ into the statusbar center-area, to relayout it to be attached to the sides of the window, and to provide an ‘external impostor’ for the statusbar (which is just a special version of the titlebar, same UI code) via a connection point.

New Widget – notifications:

When various subsystems or clients have anything important to say, the message is added to a queue that will be flushed whenever the HUD is interactively toggled. This also occurs on certain important events, like the error triggering crash recovery or abnormal client termination. You can also attach notifications of your own via the IPC system mentioned earlier.

Relevant menu paths: /global/settings/notifications/* (with send=… to emit)

The video clip showed a test client that shows a single colour window for a brief moment, then shuts down due to some “problem” but just before the connection is severed, the client can attach a short ‘last_words’ message to provide a user-readable message explaining why it terminated abnormally. This is added as a notification.

Think of it as the UI friendly equivalent of program exit codes. Since crash recovery in the WM side has gotten seamless enough that you often don’t even notice it happened, the message also carries over as a notification which is also shown in the video.


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Revisiting the Arcan Project

Two years has passed since the public presentation where Arcan and its ecosystem of side projects and tools started to creep out of the woodworks; although the project had been alive and worked on for well-over a decade at that point. A lot of things have evolved and developed in a positive direction since the time of that presentation, and this post aims to provide an overview of those changes.

But before that, the ‘elevator- pitch’ to the modern tweet-length attention spanned reader goes as follows:

Arcan is a curious blend of a streaming multimedia processor, game engine and display server with a novel design that lends itself well for both complex and simple realtime interactive graphics projects alike, and goes well with anything from Sci-Fi UIs for some homegrown embedded project to full blown desktops. It is highly modular, low on dependencies, yet comes with all necessary batteries included.

The corresponding pitch for the related project Durden is as follows:

Durden is a desktop environment dedicated to- and designed first and foremost for- hackers and professional users. As such it is keyboard dominant, building a better and more efficient CLI than the flaccid terminal emulators of yore. The strategy is to amass as many relevant features and workflows as possible, then leave them turned off yet within runtime reach – with an ‘everything is a file’ approach to control, configuration and automation.

With these reintroductions in place, let us dig through the major developments to the plot:

Stream processing
Crash Recovery and Crash Resilience
VR support
Plan9/UI Security experiments
LEDs as a first class citizen
TUI: Text-based User Interfaces
X and Wayland support
BSD ports

Stream processing

In order to further stress the point that the processing model, engine design and developer APIs are much more generic and flexible than the mere ‘Display Server’ archetype would permit or warrant, the different client- and output- connection mechanisms have all been extended for easier composition with itself. The simply means that multiple arcan instances can chain into each-other, each with a different set of processing scripts.

This feature makes it possible to interactively (with user input) stream-process multimedia (both audio and video), just like we have been able to do with text for oh so long. In this way, the feature also becomes a building block for more feature rich and dynamic media processing and composition than is provided by the likes of the venerable OBS-Studio. For more on this, see: “AWK” for multimedia.

VR support

One might be tempted to think “supporting VR” is simply stereoscopic rendering with a barrel distortion post-process and camera controls tied to a head attached IMU sensor, but that is just the entry level test.

The real thing, unfortunately, requires careful contents planning, load balancing, camera processing, video overlays, positional audio and so on – managing a virtual zoo of complex input devices that makes the nightmares of touchscreen management look like mere push buttons by comparison.

A lot of the basic controls for this have been added to Arcan and many more are to come during the year. The process was recently covered and exemplified with the post Safespaces: An Open Source VR Desktop. It shows how the building blocks are coming together for usable VR (and 3D) desktop workflows.

Crash Recovery and Crash Resilience

This part alone pushed the timeline back a year or two from the earlier roadmap, but was well worth it. An almost unreasonable amount of work has been done in order to make sure that there is incrementally stronger separation between the user interface (window manager), the display server and its clients, and that each of these should be able to recover if one or even two of the other parts would fail.

Clients can detach when they detect that the display server connection is severed, and enter a sleep-reconnect state or switch to a different display server and rebuild itself there, and for Wayland clients, this is done unbeknownst to the client itself. This is one substantial building block towards getting ‘better than X’ network transparency, an upcoming focus target.

For those that are interested, additional technical detail is presented in the article “Crash-Resilient Wayland Compositing” and this is an area where we are close to surpassing the strongest competitor in the field (Windows).

TUI : Text-based User Interfaces

The lessons learnt from writing the built in terminal emulator led to the start of development towards a new API with a number of advanced goals – the main of which is to show that the terminal protocols are ghastly display server protocols in disguise. The associated article: The Dawn of a new Command Line Interface elaborates on this in greater detail – although it is past due for an update.

The condensed point is that the isolated world that APIs (today, ncurses) and related shell (your CLI window manager, e.g. bash, zsh, …) live in due to the terminal protocol heritage radically lowers the quality of the unix command line and doubly so from the schism it has towards the graphical desktop. Arcan is closing in on a way to bridge that gap.

Plan9/UI Security Experiments

The article ‘One night in Rio – Vacation photos from Plan9′ showed how the design and API could be used to expand on a core interesting feature from the window management scheme used in Plan9. This was achieved in two stages:

First stage was providing hierarchical connection tracking and compartmentation, forcing clients spawned from a specific terminal to be tied to tabs belonging to the same window the terminal has, with no means for breaking free.

Second stage was using the connection point namespace (how an external clients finds the server) to force per-connection unique window management policies to account for ‘special needs’ clients/roles like external wallpapers, ‘rofi’ like overlay hud, statusbar etc. without any modifications to client or API.

On top of that, clients gets universally split into trust domains based on the origins of their connection and identity tokens, selectively allowing rate limiting and different permission sets on external connections and their sub-windows.

LEDs as a first class Citizen

Historically, LED output requirements have been modest from a display server perspective – boiling down to possible indicator lights on keyboards. The current reality is that there are many more outputs than the display today to control for ergonomics and overall user experience.

In the post “Playing with LEDs” covers how the once humble subsystem that dealt with external LED controllers for custom projects has been extended to controls for display backlight, RGB keyboards and mice, keyboard backlight and so on.

X and Wayland Support

Compatibility with various external clients have been treated as a lower priority than all the other tasks for a number of reasons that warrants a lengthier, dedicated post. Two years ago the only real compatibility options were as VMs via a patched QEmu backend.

To make this situation more tolerable, a separate Xorg backend, Xarcan was added after it was deemed that was actually much less work than adding support for XWayland. This is covered in the post “Dating my X“.

Wayland support was also added by taking a cue from the world of microkernels and implementing it as a translation service. This approach turned out quite well as a means of compartmentalising, sandboxing and least-privilege separating each wayland client at the protocol level, and the translation service will likely be extended to shield of / contain the radiation from more of certain “free”-desktop projects.

BSD ports

With some minor build system coaxing and input system modifications, most of Arcan can now be built and run on the various BSDs. The tougher nut to crack in this regard was unsurprisingly OpenBSD, With the article ‘Towards Secure System Graphics: Arcan and OpenBSD‘ showing all the little steps and considerations that had to be taken, and what is left to be done.

Though I would normally like to end a post like this with some tepid visions towards the coming two years and the project future in general, this time I will just restrain myself and hint that it is time to get considerably more hardcore.

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Towards Secure System Graphics: Arcan and OpenBSD

Let me preface this by saying that this is a (very) long and medium-rare technical article about the security considerations and minutiae of porting (most of) the Arcan ecosystem to work under OpenBSD. The main point of this article is not so much flirting with the OpenBSD crowd or adding further noise to software engineering topics, but to go through the special considerations that had to be taken, as notes to anyone else that decides to go down this overgrown and lonesome trail, or are curious about some less than obvious differences between how these things “work” on Linux vs. other parts of the world.

A disclaimer is also that most of this have been discovered by experimentation and combining bits and pieces scattered in everything from Xorg code to man pages, there may be smarter ways to solve some of the problems mentioned – this is just the best I could find within the time allotted. I’d be happy to be corrected, in patch/pull request form that is 😉

Each section will start with a short rant-like explanation of how it works in Linux, and what the translation to OpenBSD involved or, in the cases that are still partly or fully missing, will require. The topics that will be covered this time are:


One of the many lofty goals behind Arcan has been to not only reduce system-wide desktop complexity, to push the envelope in terms of system graphics features, quality and performance – but also to enable experimentation with security sensitive workflows and interaction schemes, with the One Night in Rio: Vacation Photos from Plan9 article covering one such experiment. Working off the classic Confidentiality- Integrity- Availability- information security staple, the article on Crash-Resilient Wayland Compositing also showed the effort being put into the Availability aspect.

The bigger picture of how much this actually entails will be saved for a different article, but the running notes on the current state of things, as well as higher level experiments are kept in [Engine Security] and [Durden-Security/Safety].

Outside of attack surface reduction, exploit mitigations and safety features, there is a more mundane, yet important aspect of security – and that is of software quality itself. This is an area where it is easy to succumb to fad language “fanboyism” or to drift in the Software Homeopathy direction of some bastardised form of code autism, such as counting the number of lines of code per function, indentation style, comment:code ratio and many other ridiculous metrics.

While there are many parts to reaching a lofty goal of supposed ‘quality software’, the one that is the implicit target of this post is the value of a portable codebase as a way of weening out bugs (where #ifdef hell or ‘stick it in a VM masked as a language runtime’ does not count).

The road to- and value of- a portable codebase is built on the ability to swap out system integration layers as a way of questioning the existing codebase about hidden assumptions and reliance on non-standard, non-portable and possibly non-robust behaviours and interfaces.

This does not always have to be on the OS level, but in other layers in the stack as well. For instance, in the domain that Arcan targets, the OpenGL implementation can be switched out for one that uses GLES, though their respective feature sets manifest many painful yet subtle differences.

Similarly, the accelerated buffer sharing mechanism can be swapped between DMA-Buf and EGLStreams. Low-level DRI and evdev based access for graphics and input can be swapped out for high-level LibSDL based. Engine builds are tested with multiple libc:s to avoid “glibc-rot” and so on. Some of these cases are not without friction, and even painful at times, but the net contribution of being able to swap out key culprits as a means of finding and resolving bugs have, in my experience, been a positive one.

Arcan has been ported to quite a few platforms by now – even if not all of them are publicly accessible; there are certain ecosystems (e.g. android, iOS) we have very little interest in publicly supporting in a normal way. The latest addition to the list of actually supported platforms is OpenBSD, added about a year after we had support for FreeBSD.  So, enough with the high-level banter, time to dive into the technical meat of the matter.

Graphics Device Access Differences

Recall that in the BSDs, most of the DRM+GBM+Mesa (DRI) stack (or as Ilja van Sprundel poignantly puts it – the shit sandwich) is mostly lifted straight from Linux, hence why some of the interfaces are decidedly “non-BSD” in their look and feel.

Device Nodes and drmMaster

A normal (e)udev setup provides device nodes on linux as /dev/dri/Card + RenderD. In OpenBSD, these nodes are located at /dev/drm, but merely changing the corresponding ‘open’ calls won’t yield much of a success, unless you are running as root. The reason is a piece of ugly known as drmMaster.

As with most things linux these days, if something previously had permissions – there is now likely both a permission, some hidden additional permission layer and some kind of service manager that shift things around if you ever get too comfortable. Something that once looked like a file actually has the characteristics and behaviour of a file system; file permissions and ownership gets “extended” with hidden attributes, capabilities, and so on.

This is the case here as well. A user may well have R/W access to the device node, but only a user with CAP_SYS_ROOT/ADMIN is allowed to become “drmMaster”, a singleton role that determines who is allowed to configure display outputs (modeset) or send data (scanout) to a display, and who that is allowed to only use the device node to access certain buffers and setup accelerated graphics. As a note, this will get more complicated with the ongoing addition of ‘leases’ – tokenised outsourced slicing of display outputs connectors.

In Linux, there are about 2.5 solutions to this problem. The trivial one is weston-launch, have it installed suid and there you go, along with all of the problems of suid and hard coded paths. The second involves an unholy union between Logind, D-Bus, udev and the ‘session’ and ‘seat’ abstractions that ultimately leads back to who is actually on the active VT, as the TTY driver layer is never going away (insert facepalm picture here) .

The last .5 is the one we have been using up until recently, and involves taking advantage of a corner case in that you do not have to set drmMaster – if no-one else has tried to; buffer scanout and modeset actually work anyway, just ignore the failed call. Set normal user permissions on the card node and there we go. This has the risk that an untrusted process running as the same user can do the same and break display state, which leads us to a case of “avoid mixing trust domains within the same uid/gid”. If you really desire to run software that you don’t trust, well, give such miscreants another uid/gid that has permission on the ‘RenderD’ node for privilege separation and the problem would be solved. Let multi-user on desktop unix just die.

Alas, neither the Master-less scanout nor the render node feature currently exist (#ifdef Linux removed) on OpenBSD, leaving the no-option of running as root or the remaining one of doing what weston-launch did, but in a saner way. This means taking an improved cue from Xenocara. Make the binary suid, and the first thing you do, no argument parsing, no hidden __constructor__ nonsense, just setup a socketpair, fork and drop privileges. Implement a trivial open/close protocol over the socketpair, and have a whitelist of permitted devices. (Fixed in OpenBSD 6.6)

Since we need dynamic and reactive access to a number of other devices anyhow, this tactic works well enough for that as well. There is a caveat here in that the user running the thing can successfully send kill -KILL to the supposedly root process, breaking certain operations like VT switching (see the Missing section).


One of the absolutely murkiest corner in any user – kernel space interface has to be that of input devices: keyboards, trackpads, joysticks, mice and so on. This is one of the rare few areas where I can sit and skim Android documentation and silently whisper “if only” before going back to alternating between screaming into a pillow and tracing through an ever expanding tree of “works 100% – 95% of the time” translation tables, where each new branch manages to be just a tad bit dumber than the ones that came before it.

Starting in Linux land again, first open the documentation. Now, you can close it again – it won’t be useful – I just wanted you to get a glimpse of its horrors. The only interface that can really be used, is evdev, written in cursive just to indicate that it should be pronounced with a hiss. It is a black lump of code that will never turn into a diamond. Instead of being replaced, it gets an ever increasing pile of “helper” libraries (libevdev, libudev, libinput, …) that tries to hide how ugly this layer is. This much resembles a transition towards the Windows approach of ‘kernel interfaces as library code’ rather than comparably clean and observable system calls. The reason for this pattern is, I assume, that no one in their right mind wants to actually work on such a thing within the Linux kernel ecosystem, if it can at all be avoided.

For OpenBSD, the better source of information is probably the PDF (Input Handling in wscons and X) along with the related manpages (yes, there are man pages) on wscons, uhid, wsmouse, wskbd. For the most part, these are obvious and simple, with the caveat that most of the low level controls are left to other tools, or that they work as multiplexer abstract devices without any ‘stream identifier’ for demultiplexation. Then there’s the case of the keyboard layout format. The underlying “problem”, depending on your point of view, is the legacy that exist in both Linux and BSDs in that tradition has meant going from BIOS -> boot loader(s) -> “text” console -> (display manager) -> Xorg and we at least need the option of being able to boot straight into UI.


There are two sides to the hotplug coin: input devices and output devices. The normal developer facing Linux strategy uses udev, the source code of which is recommended reading for anyone still looking for more reasons to get away from linux systems programming. If you want to have extra fun, take a look at how udev distinguishes a keyboard from a joystick.

Udev is an abomination that has been on my blacklist for a number of years. It has all the hallmark traits of a parasitic dependency and is a hard one to ignore. For input devices, the choice was simply to go with inotify on a user provided folder (default, /dev/input), and let whatever automatic or manual process he has populating that folder with the device nodes he thinks that Arcan should try and use.

For output, one might be easily fooled to think that the card device node that is used for everything (almost, see the backlight section) that relate to displays like mode setting, buffer scanout and synch triggers, should also be used to detect when a display is added or removed to this card. Welcome to Linux. How about, instead, we send an event with data over a socket (Netlink) in a comically shitty format, to a daemon (udev) which maps to a path in a filesystem (sysfs best pronounced as Sisyphus) which gets scraped and correlated to a database and then broadcasted to a set of listeners over D-Bus. Oh goodie. One might be so bold to call this an odd design, given that all we need is a signal to trigger a rescan of the CRTCs (“Cathode Ray Tube Controllers” for a fun legacy word) as the related API basically forces us to do our own tracking of connector card set deltas anyhow.

In OpenBSD (>= 6.3) you add the file descriptor of the card device node to a kqueue (❤️) set and wait for it to signal.


Backlight is typically reserved for the laptop use case where it is an important one, as not only can modern screens be murdering bright, but also bat away at your battery. This subsystem is actually quite involved in Arcan as it maps as yet another LED controller, though one that gets paired to ‘display added’ events. Hence why we can do things like in  this (youtube video).

The approach we used for Linux is lifted from libbacklight before it became a part of the katamari damacy game that is systemd. Again one might be tempted to think that the backlight control could somehow be tied to the display that it regulates the brightness of, but that is not how this works. Just like with hotplug, there’s scraping around in sysfs.

In OpenBSD, you send an ioctl to your wscons handle.


As touched upon in the section on graphics device access, OpenBSD maintains its own Xorg fork known as Xenocara in order to maintain their specific brand of privilege separation. Arcan meanwhile maintains its own Xarcan fork to get more flexibility and security options than what XWayland can offer, at the cost of legacy application “transparency” (though that will be introduced via the Wayland bridge at some point).

The only real difference here right now, in addition to the much superior DRI3(000) rendering and data passing model is not working (see the Missing section further below) – was adding translation tables to go from SDL1.2 keysyms (the unfortunate format that we have to work with, no one, especially not me, is without sin here).


A large part of the work behind Arcan has been to resection the entire desktop side of user space to permit much more fine grained privilege separation, particularly when it comes to parsers working on untrusted data – but also for server to client sharing modes. Thus we split out as much of the data transformations and specialised data providers as possible into their own processes – and the same goes for data parsing.

One of the reasons for this is, of course, that these are error prone tasks that should not be allowed to damage the rest of the system in any way, segmenting these out and monitoring for crashes is a decent passive way of finding new less than exciting vulnerabilities in FFmpeg, something that still happens much too often some ten years later.

The other goal is, of course, to be able to apply more precise sandboxing as one process gets assigned one task, like a good Mr. Meeseeks. An indirect beneficial side effect to this is that we get a context for experimenting with the different sandboxing experiences that the various OSes provide, such as the case of the supplementary tool ‘aloadimage‘ (a quite paranoid version of xloadimage).


The OpenBSD port of DRI currently lacks two important features – render nodes and DMA buffers. This means that we have no sane way of sending accelerated buffers between a client using accelerated graphics and Arcan. This breaks the nested ‘arcan-in-arcan’ mode with the arcan_lwa binary, it breaks wayland support and it breaks Xarcan supporting DRI3 as these all rely on that feature. (Added in OpenBSD 6.5)

While it is technically possibly to explicitly enable older style GPU sharing (durden exposes these as config/system/GPU delegation) where clients to be trusted authenticate via a challenge response scheme to the “drm master” then gets the keys to the kingdom, it is far from a recommended way as this puts the client on just about the same privilege terms as the display server itself. That being said, it is murderously foolish to think that a client who is allowed any form of raw GPU access these days doesn’t have multiple ways of privilege escalation waiting to be discovered; the order of priority is getting GPUs to do what they are told without crashing the system, then to account for clients that rely on unspecified or buggy behaviour and maybe to get them to perform under these conditions. Security is a distant dot somewhere on the horizon.

Last and incidentally, my least favourite part of the entire ecosystem, “libwayland-server” still lacks a working port – which comes as no surprise as this asynch race condition packed, faux-vtable loving, use-after free factory is littered with no-nos; the least of which being its pointless reliance on ‘epoll‘. Funny how they practically reimagined Microsoft COM and managed to make it worse.

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Safespaces: An Open Source VR Desktop

In this post, I will go through the current stages of work on a 3D and (optionally) VR desktop for the Arcan display server. It is tentatively called safespaces (Github link) as an ironic remark on the ‘anything but safe’ state of what is waiting inside. For the impatient, here is a video of it being used (Youtube link):

The explanation of what is going on can be found in the ‘High Level Use’ section further below.

To help navigate the post, here are a few links to the individual sections:

Background and Motivation

One of the absolute main goals with the Arcan project as a whole is to explore different models for all the technical aspects that goes into how we interact with computers, and to provide the infrastructure for reducing the barrier to entry for such explorations.

The overall ambition is that it should be ‘patching- scripts’ levels of difficult to piece together or tune a complete desktop environment to fit your individual fancy, and that major parts of such scripts could – with little to no modification – be shared or reused across projects.

For this reason, I’ve deliberately tried to avoid repeating- or imitating- the designs that have been used by projects such as Windows, Android, Xorg, OS X and so on. The reason was not to question or challenge their technical or business related soundness as such; those merits are already fact. Instead, the reason was to find things that was not exactly “sound” business – hence why this has all been kept as a non-profit, self-financed thing.

During the last few months, I’ve started unlocking engine parts that were intended for building VR environments, and many of the design choices had this idea as part of the implicit requirements specification very early on. The biggest hurdle has been hardware quality and availability, an area where we are finally starting to reach a workable level – the Vive/PSVR- level of hardware is definitely “good enough” to start experimenting – yet terrible enough to not be taken seriously.

Arcan as a whole is in a prime position to do this “right”, in part because of its possible role as both a display server, and as a streaming multimedia processor / aggregator. Some of the details of the TUI subproject and the SHMIF IPC subsystem also fit into the bigger puzzle, as their implicit effect is to push for thinking of clients as interactive, streams of different synchronised data types – rather than opaque pixmaps produced in monolithic ‘GUI toolkit thiefdoms’.

High level use and Demo

Starting with a shorter but slightly more crowded video from the same desktop session:

In the video, you see parts of the first window management scheme that I am trying out. Although the video is presented as monoscopic, the contents itself is stereoscopic – 3D encoded video looks 3D when viewed on a HMD.

The window management scheme is a riff on the tiling window manager, mostly due to the current lack of more sophisticated input devices that would benefit from something more refined. Actual input is keyboard and mouse in this round, though there are ongoing experiments with building a suitable glove.

“Windows”, or rather, models – since you have a number of different shapes and mappings to chose from – are grouped in cylindrical layers. The user is fixed at the centre and the input focused window is positioned at 12 o clock, with other sibling windows rotated to face the user (“billboarding”), scaled down and positioned around the layer geometry.

Each layer can be arranged at either a fixed distance for heads-up display components and infinite geometry like skyboxes; or they can be swapped back and forth – with optional opacity fade-offs, level of detail triggers and so on based on layer distance.

In each layer you can attach various primitive models, from cylinders and spheres to rectangles, flat or curved. Each model can be assigned an external source, an image and an optional activation connection point. Individual properties, such as stereoscopic mapping modes, scale, opacity and so on can also be set, and the models can swap places with each-other within the layer. Each layer can have a ‘layouter’ attached that automatically determines window positions and scale. The builtin default works like in this figure:


This shows a single layer with the user is at a fixed position, dead center. The window that has input focus has the center slot at 12’o clock, and the other windows are evenly laid out around a circle that match the set per-layer radius. If the focus window spawns subwindows or hierarchically bound subconnections, like when a terminal starts a graphics program, such windows gets positioned vertically.

The activation connection point is a unique name where the ARCAN_CONNPATH environment variable points. In the video you can see a designated ‘moviescreen’ appearing at the end when I redirect video there, and disappearing when the specific client disconnects.

A little twist is that safespaces was actually written as a tool (‘vrviewer’) for Durden – even though it is also a full window manager in disguise. The reason why I went this path is for prototyping agility, taking advantage of the tons of existing code and features in Durden shortens the ‘edit, run, test’ cycle drastically. It also eliminates the headache of picking the right display for the right purpose and other low level time consuming details – and you can move your workflows back and forth between the 3D/VR state and the 2D one.

The downside is that there is quite some overhead running it nested like this since Arcan also needs to take the normal desktop management into account, and there is some interference in the refresh rates of the different displays I have hooked up.

Setup and Architecture

There is a tool in the Arcan codebase that you have to build and enable, vrbridge (arcan_vr). It has some weird constraints since we definitely don’t want to do the device management in-process – yet the sampled data has a tiny window of opportunity for use. It takes extended, privileged features in the SHMIF API (so the engine will have to launch and manage the program. Instructions for enabling are in the file). The current version supports devices via OpenHMD, but it is trivial to interface with other VR- related APIs.

The design of the vrbridge interface is such that it allows for selective plugging of a wide range of devices (gloves, haptic suits, eye trackers, …). The scripting layer activates the VR bridge and gets announcements of ‘limbs’ arriving or disappearing. A limb gets activated by the script mapping the limb to a 3D model, and the engine will take care of synchronising limb orientation and so on at both a monotonic rate (for collision detection and response) and when preparing new output frames.

The biggest problem right now – is interfacing with devices and the vast array of possible pluggable input devices that extend the VR setup capabilities. It doesn’t help that practically everyone tries to push their own little lock-in happy frameworks and makes it hard (deliberately or by accident) to access the very few control primitives and sensor samples that are actually needed. As an added bonus, there is also “incentive” to merge with the next round of walled garden app-stores, because things weren’t bad enough as is.

Next Steps

This setup is still in its infancy, and the work so far has highlighted a few sharp corners that will need sanding, although the biggest eyesores (literally) – the quality of the 3D pipeline and the positional audio will have to wait for a while until the relevant stages of the longer Arcan roadmap has been reached.

Another part of that reason is due to the low level of system integration and high level portability requirements that Arcan needs to follow; we are really restricted as to the set of GPU features that can be relied upon and purposely restrictive when it comes to introducing dependencies.

There are two big low level targets for the near- future:

The first is improved asymmetric multi-GPU support. The challenge of this task scales drastically with what you actually do, where sending textured quads back and forth is trivial, and then it goes bad quick and nightmarish almost as fast. The two worst parts is effective load balancing and rewriting much of the synchronisation and storage management code to multithread better and get advantage out of adaptive synchronisation outputs (FreeSync).

The second is fleshing out the interaction with clients so that there is intelligent level-of-detail, and the ability for the client to output 3D representations rather than just rendered pixel buffers – think mesh icons, voxel buffers etc. for server-side rendering in order to get better immersion and seamless, gradual transition / handover between desktop use and dedicated client use.


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Argumenting Client-Side Decorations

Apparently it is the season to chime in on opinions on client side decorations (CSDs) versus server side decorations (SSDs) in the context of Wayland. I normally ignore these kinds of quarrels but this is a case where I consider the dominating solution being close to the worst possible one. The two pieces of note, so far, is This post from camp Gnome and This from camp KDE.

For starters, Martin claims:

Nothing in Wayland enforces CSD. Wayland itself is as ignorant about this as X11.

Well, it is the compositor’s job to enforce it (i.e. do nothing really) and he doesn’t want to – it’s a case of bad engineering hygiene for any implementor of a protocol to skew interpretation this blatantly as it counteracts the point of having one. You don’t have to dig deep to find the intention behind the protocol – even the first commit to the project has:

Window management is largely pushed to the clients, they
draw their own decorations and move and resize themselves, typically implemented in a toolkit library.

This has been debated again and again, and if the ‘me-too’:ers would have taken even a cursory google glance at the mailing list rather than skewing things to fit their narrative (or just not doing the basic research because why would you), they would immediately run into Kristians recurring opinion about it, and he designed much of the protocol. If that does not align with your wants and needs, perhaps this is not the protocol you should use, much less dig up worse extensions where the client can simply say “no, I want to decorate” and the server have to comply or break protocol, increasing the development cost on both sides as even compliant clients would have to deal with the absence of the particular extension. It also doesn’t do anything about the related mouse cursor issue.

Furthermore, a ton of stuff in Wayland make very little sense without CSDs – particularly wl_subsurface and wl_region but also, to some extent, the xdg_shell parts about window state (maximized, movable, fullscreen, resizing, context menu).

Then we have a long standing topic from the #wayland IRC channel itself:

Please do not argue about server-side vs. client side decorations. It's settled and won't change.

That said, I also think that the agreed upon approach to CSDs is a technically inadequate, and more a counter reaction to the state in X than other possibilities.

Lets first look at what the decorations chatter is all about. In the screenshot below you can see the top bar, the shadow region and the window border. What is not visible yet relevant is the mouse cursor. All these are possibly client defined UI components.


The options to convey this segmentation in wayland is practically as a single unit (a surface) or a complex aggregate that is one of the biggest pains to actually implement, a tree of “subsurfaces”.

Reading through comments on the matter, most seem to focus on the value of the top bar and how much stuff you can shove into it to save vertical space on a floating window manager with widescreen monitors.

Had that been the only thing, I would have cared less, because well, the strategy that will be used to counter this in the various Arcan related projects is a riff on this:

I’ll automatically detect where the top bar is, crop it out and hide it inside a titlebar toggle in the server side defined titlebar where I have the stuff that I want to be able to do to the client. There is practically nothing GTK, or anyone else for that matter, can do to counter that. In durden, the /target/window/crop and /target/window/titlebar/impostor features allows for that, per window.

UPDATE: This has recently been added in its first, quite rough, inception:

Protocol wise, it would be nice if the bar that GTK/GNOME (and to be fair, Chrome, Firefox, …) prefer in their design language had been added as another possible surface role to xdg-surface so the segmentation could go a bit smoother and the border and shadow could all be left entirely to the compositor – but it is, all in all, a minor thing.

There are, however, other areas that I argue that the choice matter a lot more, so lets look at those.


If you look like projects such as QubesOS (see also: border color spoofing) and Prio, the border part of the decorations can be used to signal “compartment” or “security domain”. The server side annotates each client surface with its knowledge about the contents, domain and trust level that the user should associate with the particular client. This part of the equation is invisible to the client and the client has no way of removing it and substituting with its own.


With client side decorations there is, by definition, no contribution from the compositor side of the equation. This means that any client can proxy the look, feel and behaviour of any other.

Even if I have a trusted path of execution where the compositor spawns the specific binary (like Arcan can with a sandboxing chainloader and a policy database) keeping the chain of trust intact. Without a visual way to indicate this, there is no difference from a compromised process spawning and proxying an instance of the same binary as a man in the middle in order to snoop on keyboard and clipboard input and client output. The problem is not insurmountable, but other design language need to be invented and trained.


Not that there are many serious attempts to allow networking for single wayland clients at the moment, but for networked clients, normal window operations like move and drag resize now require a full round-trip and a buffer swap to indicate that the operation is possible since the mouse  cursor need to be changed to reflect the current valid state. Having such operations jitter in their responsiveness is really awkward to work with.

This applies locally as well should the client input processing starts to stall, and now the user is faced with the problem of having to wait in order to move a window, or adapt/discover a possible compositor defined override (meta key +drag).

That said, there are other parts of the protocol that has similar problems, particularly the client being responsible for maintaining the keyboard layout state machine thus to implement key-repeats.

Performance and Memory Consumption

The obvious part is that all buffers need to be larger than necessary in order to account for the shadow and border region. This implies that more data needs to be transferred to- and cached on- the GPU side. About the scarcest resource I have on my systems is memory on GPUs and when it thrashes, it hurts. You can do border and even really fancy shadows as shaders during composition at a much lower systemic cost.

Everything the client draws has to be transferred in some way, with the absolute fastest way being one well-aligned buffer that gets sent to the GPU with a handle (descriptor) being returned in kind. This handle gets forwarded to the compositor that maps it to a texture and uses this texture to draw. The crutch here is that there are many ways to draw primitives that use this surface, and the one you chose will have impact on how expensive it will be for the GPU.

We can see with some toolkits, notably GTK, that fade-in, fade-out effects on state changes, such as the creation of a new surface, or focus shifting also now needs to update the entire surface multiple times. While no big deal locally, when using zero-copy handles, this stuff will need to go over the network. This makes such clients inherently much less network friendly, when it makes much more sense to have such effects implemented on the remote (server!) side, but that needs control over the decorations.

The shadow region needs to be drawn with alpha blending enabled or it will be ugly. The vast majority of UI contents can be drawn without any kind of blending enabled, but with client side decorations the compositor is left with no choice. To combat this, there is the wl_region part of the wayland protocol. Basically, you annotate the regions of a surface that is to be ‘opaque” so the compositor can perform the lovely dance of slicing up drawing into degenerate quads and toggle the blend states on and off. My memory may be a bit fuzzy, but I do not recall any compositor that actually bothers with this.

The position here is that the shadow and border- part of CSDs increase the total amount of surface that has to be considered for all drawing, buffering and layout operations. Consequently, they increase the amount of data that has to be updated, transferred and synched. The main contents, furthermore, gets pushed to offsets where they don’t align with efficient transfers, making the most expensive operation we have (texture uploads) worse. They also mutate the contents of the buffer to have a mixed origin and type. Because of this, they also adversely affect compression and other quality parameters like filtering, mipmapping and antialiasing.

UI Consistency

This is the part many discussion threads on the matter seem to boil down to so I will not provide much annotation on it. The stance that gets repeated from GTK people is a version of “users do not care, Chrome and friends do this anyhow”.  Here you have GTK, QT, EFL, SDL and Weston in loving harmony. Everyone with their own take on colours, icons, buttons and mouse cursor. “Beautiful”.

Suggestions on solving these brings the palm that much closer to the face. Things like “oh but you can have a shared library that implements the rendering”. One should rightfully ask what the point of a protocol is if, at the signs of design flaws, is to immediately reach for a sideband implementation, defeating the point of having a protocol in the first part.

Client and Protocol Complexity

It is considerably more complex to write a conforming wayland client than it is to write an Xorg client. A simple “hello world” press a key and flip a color output is in the range of thousands of lines of code, and the problem of actually knowing how to draw client decorations is open ended, as you get no hints in regards to how the user wants things to look or behave.

This means that some clients just ignore it – to some conflict and chagrin – Wayland SDL and GLFW backends or clients like Retroarch do not, at the time of writing this, implement them at all, for instance. The inflammatory thread in this MPV issue also highlights the problem.

The “I need to draw decorations?” problem becomes worse when the contents the client wants to present is in a format that is hard or costly to draw decorations in because of their rendering pipeline or restrictions on colour formats that should be used, incidentally, the case for games and video playback. This is where the wl_subsurface protocol is needed, and it maps back into the performance perspective.

The tactic is that you split the surface into the “main” area with one buffer format, and draw the decorations in slices using some other. These can be infinitely many, impose a requirement to “wait” for subsurface updates to synch. They are a fun way of making virtually all compositors crash or deadlock if you know what you are doing.

For operations like drag- resize and transforms, these becomes painfully complicated to deal with as you may need to wait for all surfaces in the tree to be “ready” before you can use them again. They can easily consume around ~12 file descriptors (also recall: double buffered state) even if the client is being nice, and with a few tricks it can become much worse.

It is to no surprise that GTK, EFL and others agree on the current situation, as they have already done the work, thus this empowers them at the cost of everyone else. Pundits also typically chime in and say something like “everyone is using a toolkit anyway” to which I say, step out of your filter bubble and widen your sample set, there are plenty of “raw” clients if you know where to look. The natural follow up from the same crowd is something to the effect of “you shouldn’t write a wayland client manually yourself, use a toolkit” – which is nothing but a terrible excuse and undermining the point of agreeing on a protocol when the details gets masked inside library code, it means moving the complexity around, making it less visible, rather than actually reducing complexity.

Adding a dependency to a million-line codebase is a really weird way of making something “simple”. 

If the point of wayland is, in fact, the often claimed “make it simpler” and the suggested solution turns out demonstrable worse than the dominating one in that regard, a band aid suggestion of ‘hide the complexity in a library’ is farcical at best.

Real simplicity is observable and permeates all components in a solution, and the reality of Wayland is anything but simple.

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Arcan 0.5.4, Durden 0.4

‘Tis the season to be jolly and just about time for the definitely last release of the year for both Arcan and its related subproject, the Durden desktop environment. Following the pattern from the last release post, lets go through some highlights and related videos, but first – a family photo:


From left to right, we have a little Raspberry  running the ‘prio’ WM using the broadcom binary blob drivers (so lacks some of the features needed to run durden), with arcan and terminals eating up all of 20MB of ram. The left Macbook running OSX with Arcan/Durden in fullscreen, retina resolution, of course. The Macbook on the right is running the same system on OpenBSD 6.2. The three-headed monkey behind them is a voidlinux setup with two instances, one on an intel GPU, the other on an AMD GPU. If only the android devices on the wall could be brought in on the fun as well…


For Arcan itself, there has been rather few ‘visible’ changes, but many more things underneath.

The Xorg arcan backend ‘Xarcan’ has been ported to OpenBSD and is now up and running there. While on the subject, the OpenBSD port has also received some improvements on the input front, with support for the wsmouse interface and the engine itself now uses the same privilege separation setup as Xenocara.

The VRbridge tool has been updated with basic OpenHMD support. In the video, you can see the vrtest script where a cube is mapped to the reported HMD orientation. A number of engine improvements have also been made for managing VR related rendering. As a PoC – here’s windowmaker, xterm and xeyes connected to an xarcan instance that renders to arcan_lwa and then via arcan with this script (gist).


The wayland protocol service has seen quite a few improvements to crash recovery, wl-shell and xdg-shell protocol compliance. It has also received a single-exec mode for compartmentation of wayland clients, and has some basic least-privileges via seccomp- filters. The full details of the crash recovery steps are kept in a separate article, Crash Resilient Wayland compositing.

The Terminal and TUI libraries have been extended to get a window ‘cloning’ feature and a related pasteboard mode. The clone feature acts as a passive ‘screenshot’ of the contents of the terminal at activation time, and the pasteboard mode reroutes ‘copy’ operations to be added to a copy window rather than being added to the clipboard directly.

Arcan and the special ‘lwa’ build have gotten their argument handling and initial setup extended to allow arbitrarily long chains of ‘pipes and filters’ like media processing, the full details are kept in the separate article, AWK for multimedia.

Yet another tool has joined the ranks, arcan-netproxy, though not really usable for anything but experimentation at the moment, but it will become the main development focus target for the 0.6.x versions. Its role and purpose is to provide ‘per- window’ like networking features, and later on, full network transparency.


To weigh up for the lack of visual flair to Arcan itself, plenty of highly visible changes has been made to the durden desktop environment.


Flair is a new tool script that provides a Compiz- like UI effects framework for adding visual flair to normal operations. Though only a few effects have been added so far, more are sure to come now that the tough parts have been finished. In the video you see not only faux-physics ‘clothy windows’ (spring grid, verlet integration, obviously superior to wobbly windows) but also an xsnow- like effect layer and a burn-on-window-destroy effect. Now, if we only could get an adaptation of Realtime 2D Radiosity and end the era of drop shadows…


Overview is a tool that acts as an ‘expose’ like workspace switcher to more quickly see what is happening on the other workspaces. Though it lacks something in the looks department, the bigger work effort was, like with the flair tool, getting the infrastructure in place for hooking and handling. Later iterations will bring back more interesting workspace switching looks.

Advanced Float

Previously, the floating window management mode was quite crude, and efforts have started to spice things up a bit. It is still not entirely competitive with advanced floating window managers yet, but the missing features should appear around the next version. This round of enhancements adds support for:

  • spawn control (e.g. draw to spawn shown in the video)
  • minimise targets (e.g. minimise to statusbar or desktop-icon)
  • customised “on-drag-enter/over” screen regions
  • titlebar buttons can now be set based on workspace mode
  • auto-rearranger (simple binpack for now)
  • grid- like position/sizing controls (like the compiz plugin)

Here you see the spawn control used, to position/size a number of windows, then auto-rearranging them.

Terminal Group- Mode

Taking a trick from the Rio/Plan9 article, it is now possible to spawn a terminal ‘group’ which act as its own distinct connection point. Graphical clients that connect via this point forcibly shares group (window slot and settings) with the terminal it spawned from, making hybrid text/graphics clients easier to work with in tiling modes. In the video, you see how the terminal switches to an image when aloadimage is run, switching back/forth between the parent slot and children, and back again when the window is ‘destroyed’.

Menu and Browser Improvements

The browser filtering now respects wildcards, but also lua patterns and specialised sort-order controls. In addition, most menu paths now show a description of what each entry do, and navigation also works with the mouse.

What’s Next?

The tedious 0.5.x- lower system graphics interfacing is sure to continue for a while longer, with the next round of changes focusing further on multi-vendor-multi-GPU drawing, swapping and load balancing now that most of the necessary configuration system rework has been dealt with.

Another worthwhile work target will be improving synchronisation strategies now that drivers start to support FreeSync, particularly letting the WM decide if and when some client should be prioritised (think games and latency) to complement the existing ‘direct-to-screen’ mode.

It is also about time to push the work on TUI further: finishing the Lua API bindings and related advanced features e.g. subwindows, content embedding, standalone version (kmscon: the return).

For Durden, the feature race will soon (but not yet) start to slow down and instead focus on raising overall quality and usability (polish, actual default profiles, internationalisation support). Before then, however, it is likely that some more advanced input devices (eye trackers, customised mouse- and touchscreen gestures, onscreen keyboard) will get a little bit of love, icon and drag/drop for float mode, and the model-viewer tool being extended to support redirecting to a VR HMD, allowing for 360-, 180- video playback.

Senseye has been neglected for a long time, with only minor experiments on how to refactor the UI into something better. After some pondering, the individual sensors will be changed into “normal” arcan applications, and all the analysis tools will become plugins to Durden rather than acting as a completely separate UI.

Detailed Changelog



  • VR support now covers the full path from bridge communicating metadata and limb discovery/loss/map/updates
  • (71939f) -0,-1 pipes and filters input setup added, covered in AWK for Multimedia
  • format-string render functions extended with vid-subimage blit


  • New function: define_linktarget – used to create an offscreen render pipeline that is tied to the pipeline of another rendertarget
  • New function: subsystem_reset – used to rebuild subsystems (video only for now) to allow live driver upgrades, active GPU switching and so on – without losing state
  • Updated function: camtag_model, change to allow forcing destination rendertarget
  • Updated function: image_tesselation, expose index access
  • Updated function: render_text, added evid,w,h and Evid,w,h,x1,y1,x2,y2
  • Updated function: random_surface, added additional noise function controls


  • Support for ligatures improved
  • Highlighting/Inverse/Full-Block cursor changed for better visibility
  • Added controls to copy the current window into a new (input label: COPY_WINDOW)
  • Copy Windows can be set to be the primary clipboard receiver (input label: SELECT_TOGGLE)


  • OpenBSD: added mouse support
  • Egl-Dri: swap-GPU slot added to db- based configuration
  • SDL2: improved keyboard and mouse support


  • VRbridge – initial support for OpenHMD
  • Xarcan – Ported to OpenBSD
  • Waybridge:
    • fixes to subsurface allocations
    • reworked wl-shell to use (most) of the xdg-shell event mapping
    • -egl-shm argument added (perform shm->dma_buf conversion in bridge to offload server)
    • single exec mode (arcan-wayland -exec /my/bin) for stronger separation between clients
    • add support for rebuilding client (crash recovery and migration)


Big Items:

  • Display region sharing now supports force-pushing into clients that can handle input segments.
  • target/video/advance/migrate,fallback – send a migrate request to a client, which may prompt a client to jump to a different connection point or display server instance.
  • shader subsystem – added a multi-pass effect format along with some initial effects (gaussian blur, CRT-lottes).
  • tools/advfloat – extended float layout mode capabilities:
    • spawn control (draw2spawn)
    • hide-to-statusbar
    • cursor-action-region (see tools/advfloat/cregion.lua for definition)
    • automatic relayouter
  • tools/overview – added a HUD- like workspace switcher
  • tools/flair – added a visual effects layers and some initial effects
  • terminal-group spawn-mode – allows a connection primitive to be generated per terminal and clients which connect via this group share the same logical window tree slot
  • Tui/terminal clients are now allowed to spawn additional tui subsegments.
  • File browser now expose wild-card matching (asterisk), Lua patterns (%%) and sort-order modification (typing % lists options).
  • retain some window and workspace properties across script errors, crashes and resets
  • menu navigation can now shows a helper description of the currently selected item
  • mode-sensitive titlebar icons – window titlebar icons can now be set to be activated only in certain modes


  • Destroying a window in fullscreen mode now returns the workspace   to the last known mode instead of forcing to tile
  • Double-tap input-lock automatically unlocks if the locked window   is closed
  • Double-tap input-lock without a selected windows is now a no-op
  • Float mode border drag sizing, cursorhint and positioning fixes
  • Float mode drag now respects statusbar- imposed boundaries
  • Float mode canvas-drag/resize option for self-decorated clients
  • Improved (less broken) handling for wayland popups and subsurfaces
  • Step-resize keybinding now aligns to window- cell size (terminals)
  • statusbar can now be sized/padded to percentage of display output (config/statusbar/borderpad)
  • statusbar specific configuration moved to (config/statusbar) from   (config/visual/bars/…)
  • statusbar number prefix on known workspaces and statusbar mode button can now be toggled on/off

That’s all for now – Happy New Year and See you in 2018.

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Crash-Resilient Wayland Compositing

A commonly held misbelief about one of the possibly negative consequences with migrating from X11 to Wayland is that the system as a whole will become more brittle due to the merger of the display server and the window manager into a ‘compositor’. The argument goes that a bug in the higher level window management parts would kill both the “display server” part, and subsequently its clients, and this is well illustrated in this issue from camp GNOME. To quote <jadahl>s comment in the thread:

I know I have been talking about this before but I think eventually
we really want to do the compositing/UI split. Not now, since it's a
huge undertaking and will involve a massive amount of work, but
eventually it's the solution that I think we should work towards -
long term. The reason is not only because of stability, but for
responsiveness and other things as well.

I think for this bug, a WONTFIX is appropriate. There is no single
"fix" for stability to do here. We just need to hunt down as many
mutter/gnome-shell crashes as we can.

Fortunately, the protocol does not have any provisions that would make a more resilient design impossible – although, to the best of my knowledge, Arcan is the only* implementation that can readily demonstrate this fully. This article will therefore go into details as to how that is achieved, and show just how much work and planning that takes.

The following illustration shows the layers in place, and the remainder of this article will go through them one at a time, divided as follows:

Crash Recovery Stages

The two dashed boxes indicate some form of strict code- memory- or symbol- namespace separation. To quickly navigate to each section, use the links below:

  1. Surviving Window Manager crashes
  2. Surviving Protocol implementation crashes
  3. Surviving Compositor level crashes
  4. Surviving Display System crashes

A combined video clip (for those that dislike the wordpress- embedded video approach) can be found here:

Important: The setup here uses two separate instances of Arcan for demonstration purposes. The left screen is running on GPU1, which will be used as a monitoring console for checking the right screen (GPU2) where all the demo stuff will happen. It has been set up so that CTRL-ALT-F1 act as an on/off toggle for ignoring input on the instance controlling the left screen, with CTRL-ALT-F2 doing the same for the instance controlling the right screen.

Notes: It is worthwhile to note that KDE Plasma and KWin do have a separation that works to the extent of stage 1. It could be argued that MIR and Enlightenment has something to this effect, with the latter described in Wayland Recovery: A Journey Of Discovery – but I disagree; re-pairing client server-side metadata by agreeing on unique identifiers that persist across sessions is but one small and quite optional part of the solution, there are much stronger things that be done. That said, as visible at the end of the video you indirectly see this tactic being used also. The underlying implementation detail is simply that each resource bundle (“segment”) allocated across shmif always gets assigned a unique identifier, unless one is provided upon connection, allowing the window manager to store that identifier combined with layout information. Durden, for instance, does that periodically after something relevant in the layout has changed. When clients reconnect via the recovery mechanism covered later, this identifier is provided upon registration and window layout can be restored.

1. Surviving Window Manager crashes

For this demo, I have added a ‘Crash WM’ menu command that tries to call a function which doesn’t exist (a fatal scripting error), which you can see the highlighted error message on the left screen (this_function_will_crash_the_wm()).

The individual steps are, roughly:

  1. VM script error handler -> longjmp back into a part of main().
  2. Drop all ‘non-externally connected’ resources.
  3. Reinitialise VM using new or previous set of scripts.
  4. Expose externally connected resources through special ‘adopt’ event handler.

The first part of the strategy here is separation between the core engine and the policy layer (window manager) by a scripting interpreter (the Lua language). Lua was chosen here due to its strong track record, the quality of the available JIT, the way the VM integrates with C code, the detailed control over dependencies, the small code and memory footprint and it being “mostly harmless, with few surprises” as a language, and a low “barrier to entry”. Blizzard, for instance, used Lua as the UI scripting layer in World of Warcraft for good reasons and to great effect.

Note: A more subtle detail that is currently being implemented, is that, due to the way the engine binds to the Lua layer, it is easy to make the bindings double as a privileged protocol, using the documentation format and preexisting documentation as an interface description language. By wrapping the Lua VM integration API with a line format and building the binding code twice, with one round as a normal scripted build and another as a ‘protocol build’, we will be able to fully replicate the X model with a separate Window Manager ‘client’ process written – but without the synchronisation problems, security drawbacks or complex legacy.

When the Lua virtual machine encounters an error, it invokes an error handler. This error handler will deallocate all resources that are not designated for keeping clients alive, but keep the rest of the engine intact (the longjmp step).

When the virtual machine is rebuilt, the scripts will be invoked with a special ‘adoption’ event handler – a way to communicate with the window management scripts to determine if it accepts a specific external client connection, or if it should be discarded. The nifty part about this design is that it can also be used to swap out window manager schemes at runtime, or ‘reset’ the current one – all using the same execution path.

The active script also has the option to ‘tag’ a connection handle with metadata that can be accessed from the adoption event handler in order to reconstruct properties such as window position, size and workspace assignment. The DE in the video, Durden, uses the tag for this very purpose. It also periodically flushes these tags to disks, which works both as ‘remember client settings’ and for rebuilding workspace state on harder crashes (see section 3).

2. Surviving Protocol- implementation crashes

For this demo, I have modified the wayland server side implementation to crash when a client tries to spawn a popup. There are two gtk3-demo instances up and running, where I trigger the popup-crash on one, and you can see that the other is left intact.

Wayland support is implemented via a protocol bridge, waybridge – or by the name of its binary: arcan-wayland. It communicates with the main process via the internal ‘SHMIF’ API as a means of segmenting the engine processing pipeline into multiple processes, as trying to perform normal multithreading inside the engine itself is a terrible idea with very few benefits.

At the time of the earlier presentations on Arcan development, the strategy for Wayland support was simply to let it live inside the main compositor process – and this is what others are also doing. After experimenting with the wayland-server API however, it ticked off all the check-boxes on my “danger, Will Robinson!” chart for working in memory-unsafe languages (including it being multithread-unsafe), placing it firmly in a resounding “not a chance, should not be used inside a privileged process” territory; there are worse dangers than The Wayland Zombie Apocalypse lurking here. Thus, the wayland support was implemented in front of SHMIF rather than behind it, but I digress.

Waybridge has 2.5 execution modes:

  • simple mode – all clients share the same resource and process compartment.
  • single-exec mode – only one client will be bridged, when it disconnects, we terminate.

With simple mode, things work as expected: one process is responsible for mediating connections and if the process happens to crash, everyone else go down with it. The single-exec mode, on the other hand, is neat because a protocol level implementation crash will only affect a single client. It can also achieve better parallelism for shared-memory type- buffers, as the cost for synchronising and transferring the contents to a GPU will be absorbed by the bridge-process assigned to the responsible client at times where the compositor may be prevented from doing so itself.

What happens in single-exec mode, i.e.

./arcan-wayland -exec gtk3-demo

Is that the wayland abstract ‘display’ will be created with all the supported protocols. The related environment variables (XDG_RUNTIME_DIR, …) and temporary directories will be generated, and then inherit+fork+exec the specified client.

Note: This does not currently “play well” with some other software that relies on the folder (notably pulseaudio), though that will be fixed shortly.

The missing “.5” execution mode is a slightly cheaper hybrid that will use the fork-and-continue pattern in order to multiplex on the same listening socket and thus removing the need to ‘wrap’ clients; yet still keep them in separate processes. Unfortunately, this mode still lacks some ugly tricks in order to work around issues with the design of the wayland-server API.

Another neat gain with this approach is that each client can be provided with a different set of supported protocols; not all clients need to be allowed direct GPU access, for instance. The decoupling also means that the implementation can be upgraded live and we can load balance. Other than that, if you, like me, mostly work with terminals or special-purpose graphics programs that do not speak Wayland, you can opt-in and out of the attack surface dynamically. Per-client sandboxing or inter-positioning tricks in order to stub or tamper with parasitic dependencies(D-Bus, …)  that tend to come with wayland clients due to the barebones nature of the protocol, also becomes relatively easy.

3. Surviving Compositor level crashes

Time to increase the level of difficulty. Normally, I run Arcan with something like the following:

while true; do arcan -b durden durden; done

This means that if the program terminates, it is just restarted. The -b argument is related to “1. surviving window manager crashes”, i.e. in the event of a crash, reload the last set of scripts, it could also be the name of another window manager – or when doing development work, combined with a git stash to fall back to the ‘safe’ version in the case of a repeatable error during startup.

In this clip, you see me manually sending SIGKILL to the display server controlling the right display, and the screen goes black. I thereafter start it again and you can see the clients come back without any intervention, preserving both position, size and hierarchy.

This one requires cooperation throughout the stack, with most work on the ‘client’ side, and here are some Wayland woes in that there isn’t any protocol in place to let the client know what to do in the event of a crash. However, due to the decoupling between protocol implementation and server process, that task is outsourced to the IPC subsystem (SHMIF) which ties the two together.

What happens first is that the window manager API has commands in place to instruct a client where to connect in the event of the connection dying unexpectedly. This covers two use cases, namely crash recovery, and for migrating a client between multiple server instances.

When the waybridge detects that the main process has died, it goes into a reconnect/sleep on fail – loop against a connection primitive that was provided as a ‘fallback’. When the new connection is enabled, waybridge enumerates all surfaces tied to a client, and renegotiates new server-side resources, updates buffers and hierarchy based on the last known state.

The ugly caveat to this solution right now, is that connections can be granted additional privileges on an individual basis, normally based on if they have been launched from a trusted path of execution (Arcan spawned the process with inherited connection primitives) or not. Since this chain is broken when the display server is restarted, such privileges are lost and the user (or scripts acting on behalf of the user) need to interactively re-enable such privileges.

The big (huge) upside, on top of the added resilience, is that it allows clients to jump between different display server instances, allowing configurations like multi-GPU via one-instance per GPU like patterns, or by selectively moving certain clients to other specialised server instances, e.g. a network proxy.

4. Surviving Display System crashes

This one is somewhat more difficult to demonstrate – and the full story would require more cooperation from the lower graphics stack and access to features that are scheduled for a later release, so it is only marginally interesting in the current state of things.

The basic display server level requirement is being able to, at any time, generate local copies of all GPU-bound assets, and then rebuild itself on another GPU and – failing that, telling clients to go somewhere else. On the other hand, this is, to some extent, also required by the CTRL+ALT+Fn style of virtual terminal switching.

The ‘go somewhere else’ step is easy, and is just reusing the same reconnect mechanism that was shown in ‘Surviving Compositor Level Crashes’ and combining it with a network proxy, through which the client can either remote-render- or migrate state.

The rebuild-step starts out as simple since initially, the rendering pipeline is typically only drawing a bunch of quadrilaterals with external texture sources – easy enough. With window manager specific resources and custom drawing, multi-pass, render-to-texture effects, shaders and so on, the difficulty level rises considerably as the supported feature set between the devices might not match. Then it becomes worse when the clients that draw using accelerated devices that might have been irreversibly lost also need to be able to do this – along with protocol for transferring new device primitives and dynamically reloading related support libraries.

The upside is that when the feature is robust, all major prerequisites for proper multi-Vendor-multi-GPU scan-out, load-balancing and synthesis, live driver updates and GPU/display-to-client handover have been fulfilled – and the volatility is mitigated by the crash level recovery from section 3, but that is a topic for another time.

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